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Posts Tagged ‘Internals’

SSMS Internals : What is the meaning of Wait Category in Activity Monitor Under Resource Waits

Posted by blakhani on November 27, 2014


Recently I was working with a friend on performance issue and she asked an simple question.

I use activity monitor tool which is provided with management studio. When I look at the Resource Waits group, there is a column called Wait Category. What does that show and how data is picked? Here is the screenshot from my machine.

At almost same time, same question popped in Facebook group (SQLBangalore) as well. So I decided to dig into more details. Captured the profiler and found that Activity Monitor uses two DMVs to show the values in that section (Resource Waits).

  • sys.dm_os_wait_stats is used to get information for completed waits
  • sys.dm_os_waiting_tasks for threads that are in an in-progress wait.

Here are the various waits we could potentially see.

Wait Category Count(Type)
Backup 7
Buffer I/O 12
Buffer Latch 6
Compilation 3
Full Text Search 3
Idle 26
Latch 9
Lock 21
Logging 5
Memory 6
Network I/O 6
Other 120
Parallelism 3
SQLCLR 17
Transaction 18
User Waits 1

 

How did I find this? By running profiler! As per profiler, the waits related information in Activity Monitor (AM) is populated by procedure #am_generate_waitstats. This is created when AM is launched. The temporary table which is populated in #am_wait_types which has mapping of “display” values and DMV values.

 

category_name wait_type ignore
Backup BACKUP 0
Backup BACKUP_CLIENTLOCK 0
Backup BACKUP_OPERATOR 0
Backup BACKUPBUFFER 0
Backup BACKUPIO 0
Backup BACKUPTHREAD 0
Backup DISKIO_SUSPEND 0
Buffer I/O ASYNC_DISKPOOL_LOCK 0
Buffer I/O ASYNC_IO_COMPLETION 0
Buffer I/O FCB_REPLICA_READ 0
Buffer I/O FCB_REPLICA_WRITE 0
Buffer I/O IO_COMPLETION 0
Buffer I/O PAGEIOLATCH_DT 0
Buffer I/O PAGEIOLATCH_EX 0
Buffer I/O PAGEIOLATCH_KP 0
Buffer I/O PAGEIOLATCH_NL 0
Buffer I/O PAGEIOLATCH_SH 0
Buffer I/O PAGEIOLATCH_UP 0
Buffer I/O REPLICA_WRITES 0
Buffer Latch PAGELATCH_DT 0
Buffer Latch PAGELATCH_EX 0
Buffer Latch PAGELATCH_KP 0
Buffer Latch PAGELATCH_NL 0
Buffer Latch PAGELATCH_SH 0
Buffer Latch PAGELATCH_UP 0
Compilation RESOURCE_SEMAPHORE_MUTEX 0
Compilation RESOURCE_SEMAPHORE_QUERY_COMPILE 0
Compilation RESOURCE_SEMAPHORE_SMALL_QUERY 0
Full Text Search SOAP_READ 0
Full Text Search SOAP_WRITE 0
Full Text Search MSSEARCH 0
Idle ONDEMAND_TASK_QUEUE 1
Idle REQUEST_FOR_DEADLOCK_SEARCH 1
Idle RESOURCE_QUEUE 1
Idle LOGMGR_QUEUE 1
Idle KSOURCE_WAKEUP 1
Idle LAZYWRITER_SLEEP 1
Idle BROKER_RECEIVE_WAITFOR 1
Idle CHECKPOINT_QUEUE 1
Idle CHKPT 1
Idle BROKER_EVENTHANDLER 1
Idle BROKER_TRANSMITTER 1
Idle SERVER_IDLE_CHECK 1
Idle SNI_HTTP_ACCEPT 1
Idle SLEEP_BPOOL_FLUSH 1
Idle SLEEP_DBSTARTUP 1
Idle SLEEP_DCOMSTARTUP 1
Idle SLEEP_MSDBSTARTUP 1
Idle SLEEP_SYSTEMTASK 1
Idle SLEEP_TASK 1
Idle SLEEP_TEMPDBSTARTUP 1
Idle SQLTRACE_BUFFER_FLUSH 1
Idle TRACEWRITE 1
Idle WAITFOR_TASKSHUTDOWN 1
Idle WAIT_FOR_RESULTS 1
Idle XE_DISPATCHER_WAIT 1
Idle XE_TIMER_EVENT 1
Latch VIEW_DEFINITION_MUTEX 0
Latch DEADLOCK_ENUM_MUTEX 0
Latch LATCH_DT 0
Latch LATCH_EX 0
Latch LATCH_KP 0
Latch LATCH_NL 0
Latch LATCH_SH 0
Latch LATCH_UP 0
Latch INDEX_USAGE_STATS_MUTEX 0
Lock LCK_M_BU 0
Lock LCK_M_IS 0
Lock LCK_M_IU 0
Lock LCK_M_IX 0
Lock LCK_M_RIn_NL 0
Lock LCK_M_RIn_S 0
Lock LCK_M_RIn_U 0
Lock LCK_M_RIn_X 0
Lock LCK_M_RS_S 0
Lock LCK_M_RS_U 0
Lock LCK_M_RX_S 0
Lock LCK_M_RX_U 0
Lock LCK_M_RX_X 0
Lock LCK_M_S 0
Lock LCK_M_SCH_M 0
Lock LCK_M_SCH_S 0
Lock LCK_M_SIU 0
Lock LCK_M_SIX 0
Lock LCK_M_U 0
Lock LCK_M_UIX 0
Lock LCK_M_X 0
Logging LOGBUFFER 0
Logging LOGMGR 0
Logging LOGMGR_FLUSH 0
Logging LOGMGR_RESERVE_APPEND 0
Logging WRITELOG 0
Memory UTIL_PAGE_ALLOC 0
Memory SOS_RESERVEDMEMBLOCKLIST 0
Memory SOS_VIRTUALMEMORY_LOW 0
Memory LOWFAIL_MEMMGR_QUEUE 0
Memory RESOURCE_SEMAPHORE 0
Memory CMEMTHREAD 0
Network I/O ASYNC_NETWORK_IO 0
Network I/O DBMIRROR_SEND 0
Network I/O NET_WAITFOR_PACKET 0
Network I/O OLEDB 0
Network I/O MSQL_DQ 0
Network I/O DTC_STATE 0
Other EXECUTION_PIPE_EVENT_INTERNAL 0
Other FAILPOINT 0
Other INTERNAL_TESTING 0
Other IO_AUDIT_MUTEX 0
Other KTM_ENLISTMENT 0
Other KTM_RECOVERY_MANAGER 0
Other KTM_RECOVERY_RESOLUTION 0
Other MSQL_SYNC_PIPE 0
Other MIRROR_SEND_MESSAGE 0
Other MISCELLANEOUS 0
Other MSQL_XP 0
Other REQUEST_DISPENSER_PAUSE 0
Other PARALLEL_BACKUP_QUEUE 0
Other PRINT_ROLLBACK_PROGRESS 0
Other QNMANAGER_ACQUIRE 0
Other QPJOB_KILL 0
Other QPJOB_WAITFOR_ABORT 0
Other QRY_MEM_GRANT_INFO_MUTEX 0
Other QUERY_ERRHDL_SERVICE_DONE 0
Other QUERY_EXECUTION_INDEX_SORT_EVENT_OPEN 0
Other QUERY_NOTIFICATION_MGR_MUTEX 0
Other QUERY_NOTIFICATION_SUBSCRIPTION_MUTEX 0
Other QUERY_NOTIFICATION_TABLE_MGR_MUTEX 0
Other QUERY_NOTIFICATION_UNITTEST_MUTEX 0
Other QUERY_OPTIMIZER_PRINT_MUTEX 0
Other QUERY_REMOTE_BRICKS_DONE 0
Other QUERY_TRACEOUT 0
Other RECOVER_CHANGEDB 0
Other REPL_CACHE_ACCESS 0
Other REPL_SCHEMA_ACCESS 0
Other DBMIRROR_WORKER_QUEUE 0
Other DBMIRRORING_CMD 0
Other DBTABLE 0
Other DAC_INIT 0
Other DBCC_COLUMN_TRANSLATION_CACHE 0
Other DBMIRROR_DBM_EVENT 0
Other DBMIRROR_DBM_MUTEX 0
Other DBMIRROR_EVENTS_QUEUE 0
Other DEADLOCK_TASK_SEARCH 0
Other DEBUG 0
Other DISABLE_VERSIONING 0
Other DLL_LOADING_MUTEX 0
Other DROPTEMP 0
Other DUMP_LOG_COORDINATOR 0
Other DUMP_LOG_COORDINATOR_QUEUE 0
Other DUMPTRIGGER 0
Other EC 0
Other EE_PMOLOCK 0
Other EE_SPECPROC_MAP_INIT 0
Other ENABLE_VERSIONING 0
Other ERROR_REPORTING_MANAGER 0
Other FSAGENT 1
Other FT_RESTART_CRAWL 0
Other FT_RESUME_CRAWL 0
Other FULLTEXT GATHERER 0
Other GUARDIAN 0
Other HTTP_ENDPOINT_COLLCREATE 0
Other HTTP_ENUMERATION 0
Other HTTP_START 0
Other IMP_IMPORT_MUTEX 0
Other IMPPROV_IOWAIT 0
Other ABR 0
Other BROKER_REGISTERALLENDPOINTS 0
Other BROKER_SHUTDOWN 0
Other BROKER_TASK_STOP 1
Other BAD_PAGE_PROCESS 0
Other BROKER_CONNECTION_RECEIVE_TASK 0
Other BROKER_ENDPOINT_STATE_MUTEX 0
Other CURSOR 0
Other CURSOR_ASYNC 0
Other BUILTIN_HASHKEY_MUTEX 0
Other CHECK_PRINT_RECORD 0
Other BROKER_INIT 0
Other BROKER_MASTERSTART 0
Other SOSHOST_EVENT 0
Other SOSHOST_INTERNAL 0
Other SOSHOST_MUTEX 0
Other SOSHOST_RWLOCK 0
Other SOSHOST_SEMAPHORE 0
Other SOSHOST_SLEEP 0
Other SOSHOST_TRACELOCK 0
Other SOSHOST_WAITFORDONE 0
Other SOS_STACKSTORE_INIT_MUTEX 0
Other SOS_SYNC_TASK_ENQUEUE_EVENT 0
Other SHUTDOWN 0
Other SOS_CALLBACK_REMOVAL 0
Other SOS_DISPATCHER_MUTEX 0
Other SOS_LOCALALLOCATORLIST 0
Other SOS_OBJECT_STORE_DESTROY_MUTEX 0
Other SOS_PROCESS_AFFINITY_MUTEX 0
Other SNI_CRITICAL_SECTION 0
Other SNI_HTTP_WAITFOR_0_DISCON 0
Other SNI_LISTENER_ACCESS 0
Other SNI_TASK_COMPLETION 0
Other SEC_DROP_TEMP_KEY 0
Other SEQUENTIAL_GUID 0
Other VIA_ACCEPT 0
Other SQLSORT_NORMMUTEX 0
Other SQLSORT_SORTMUTEX 0
Other WAITSTAT_MUTEX 0
Other WCC 0
Other WORKTBL_DROP 0
Other XE_BUFFERMGR_ALLPROCECESSED_EVENT 0
Other XE_BUFFERMGR_FREEBUF_EVENT 0
Other XE_DISPATCHER_JOIN 0
Other SQLTRACE_LOCK 0
Other SQLTRACE_SHUTDOWN 0
Other SQLTRACE_WAIT_ENTRIES 0
Other SRVPROC_SHUTDOWN 0
Other TEMPOBJ 0
Other THREADPOOL 1
Other TIMEPRIV_TIMEPERIOD 0
Other XE_TIMER_MUTEX 0
Other XE_TIMER_TASK_DONE 0
Other XE_MODULEMGR_SYNC 0
Other XE_OLS_LOCK 0
Other XE_SERVICES_MUTEX 0
Other XE_SESSION_CREATE_SYNC 0
Other XE_SESSION_SYNC 0
Other XE_STM_CREATE 0
Parallelism CXPACKET 1
Parallelism EXCHANGE 1
Parallelism EXECSYNC 1
SQLCLR CLR_AUTO_EVENT 1
SQLCLR CLR_CRST 0
SQLCLR CLR_JOIN 0
SQLCLR CLR_MANUAL_EVENT 1
SQLCLR CLR_MEMORY_SPY 0
SQLCLR CLR_MONITOR 0
SQLCLR CLR_RWLOCK_READER 0
SQLCLR CLR_RWLOCK_WRITER 0
SQLCLR CLR_SEMAPHORE 0
SQLCLR CLR_TASK_START 0
SQLCLR CLRHOST_STATE_ACCESS 0
SQLCLR ASSEMBLY_LOAD 0
SQLCLR FS_GARBAGE_COLLECTOR_SHUTDOWN 0
SQLCLR SQLCLR_APPDOMAIN 0
SQLCLR SQLCLR_ASSEMBLY 0
SQLCLR SQLCLR_DEADLOCK_DETECTION 0
SQLCLR SQLCLR_QUANTUM_PUNISHMENT 0
Transaction TRAN_MARKLATCH_DT 0
Transaction TRAN_MARKLATCH_EX 0
Transaction TRAN_MARKLATCH_KP 0
Transaction TRAN_MARKLATCH_NL 0
Transaction TRAN_MARKLATCH_SH 0
Transaction TRAN_MARKLATCH_UP 0
Transaction TRANSACTION_MUTEX 0
Transaction XACT_OWN_TRANSACTION 0
Transaction XACT_RECLAIM_SESSION 0
Transaction XACTLOCKINFO 0
Transaction XACTWORKSPACE_MUTEX 0
Transaction DTC_TMDOWN_REQUEST 0
Transaction DTC_WAITFOR_OUTCOME 0
Transaction MSQL_XACT_MGR_MUTEX 0
Transaction MSQL_XACT_MUTEX 0
Transaction DTC 0
Transaction DTC_ABORT_REQUEST 0
Transaction DTC_RESOLVE 0
User Waits WAITFOR 1

 

Hope this helps in understanding Activity monitor wait category little better.

  • Cheers,
  • Balmukund Lakhani
  • Twitter @blakhani
  • Author: SQL Server 2012 AlwaysOnPaperback, Kindle
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    Posted in Internals, SQL Server Management Studio, SSMS | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 3 Comments »

    A-Z of In-Memory OLTP : Native Compilation

    Posted by blakhani on December 17, 2013


    Imagine that you are participating in a 400 meters running competition and you are the only one to get discount of 300 meters and allowed to start 100 meters before the finish line. What would be the result? All participants have to run 400 meters and you would run only 100 meters. Of course, You would win!!! (terms and condition apply). In the same way, what would happen in SQL world, if we finish a significant amount of work i.e. compilation of stored procedure during creation phase. Yes, you are correct. The time spent in execution of the stored procedure would be less. In this post we would try to learn internals of native compilation.

    In earlier “T-SQL Constructs” post of this series, we have seen syntax of creation of natively compiled stored procedure. Native compilation of the stored procedure causes machine language code (i.e. DLL) to be generated and loaded in SQL Server Memory. Natively compiled stored procedures allows us to execute T-SQL in the fastest way, which includes accessing data in memory-optimized tables. In addition, disk-based tables are not allowed to be accessed at all inside natively compiled stored procedures. If we attempt to create a natively compiled procedure which accesses disk based table, we would get below error. In my test, the table name was DiskBasedTable.

    Msg 10775, Level 16, State 1, Procedure InsertName, Line 14
    Object ‘dbo.DiskBasedTable’ is not a memory optimized table and cannot be accessed from a natively compiled stored procedure.

    The advantages of natively complies stored procedure is that most of the work (permission check, object existence check, query plan generation) is done during compilation/creation of stored procedure. Due to this there are many limitations on the Transact-SQL that is allowed, the data types and collations that can be accessed and processed in natively compiled procedures. SQL Server Product Documentation team has done good amount of work in documenting them (refer Supported Data Types, Unsupported Transact-SQL Constructs)

    To get a list of natively complied stored procedures we can use catalog views as shown below. Highlighted below is the new column added to support in-memory OLTP.

    SELECT uses_native_compilation, 
           object_id, 
           Object_name(object_id) 
    FROM   sys.sql_modules 
    WHERE  uses_native_compilation = 1 
    go 
    
    SELECT uses_native_compilation, 
           object_id, 
           Object_name(object_id) 
    FROM   sys.all_sql_modules 
    WHERE  uses_native_compilation = 1 
    go
    

     

    Here is the output in SSMS

    image

    To convert a stored procedure to DLL, SQL Server engine uses C compiler. Does this mean we need to have C installed on the machine when we install in-memory OLTP? Well, we just need to complie the C code so we just need compiler related files. SQL Server product comes with compiler files. As soon as SQL Engine is installed, these files are installed under <SQL Server Installation Directory>\MSSQL\Binn\Xtp folder. Main compilation files are located under ..\VC\bin folder.

    image

    Sometimes, we might face stored procedure creation failure due to issues in compilation of the C code. To make our life easier, SQL Server generates intermediate files and they are useful for troubleshooting by members of product support team. Here is the text of .out file.

    Microsoft (R) C/C++ Optimizing Compiler Version 17.00.60605.1 for x64

    Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.

    xtp_p_8_581577110.c

    Microsoft (R) Incremental Linker Version 11.00.60605.1

    Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.

    /out:xtp_p_8_581577110.dll

    /ltcg

    /debug

    /dll

    /implib:xtp_p_8_581577110.lib

    "/LIBPATH:C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL12.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Binn\Xtp\gen\lib"

    "/LIBPATH:C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL12.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Binn\Xtp\VC\lib"

    /noentry

    /nodefaultlib

    /incremental:no

    /ltcg

    /wx

    /FUNCTIONPADMIN

    xtp_p_8_581577110.obj

    hkgenlib.lib

    hkruntime.lib

    hkengine.lib

    hkgenexp.exp

    hkcrt.lib

    hkk32.lib

    hkversion.obj

    Generating code

    Finished generating code

    If you are a C developer, it may be easy for you to understand the switches passed during calling of CL.exe. There is no real need for a DBA to know all these options. In case you are too excited, read here for the parameters.

    Before I conclude, I would like you to throw ideas about below error, while creation of natively compiled stored procedure.

    image

    Here is the text of the message:

    Msg 41312, Level 16, State 4, Procedure InsertName1, Line 2

    Unable to call into the C compiler. GetLastError = 2.

    Of course, I broke something and above is the error I am getting. Can you guess? Go ahead and comment on the post.

    Stay Tuned for next part of the series.

    Cheers,

    Balmukund Lakhani

    Twitter @blakhani

    Author: SQL Server 2012 AlwaysOnPaperback, Kindle

    Posted in A - Z Series, Hekaton Series, In Memory OLTP, In-Memory OLTP | Tagged: , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

    A-Z of In-Memory OLTP : Behind the scenes

    Posted by blakhani on December 12, 2013


    If you have a kid in your life, you probably get inundated every day with questions starting with word “why” and “what”. Why do kids ask why? One of the answers is, that children are naturally curious about the world around them. After all, there’s much to learn, and much to know. We all have a kid inside us who is very curious, that’s why I thought of writing this blog post.

    In A-Z Series, we have discussed about T-SQL constructs and SSMS enhancements to create In-Memory objects. In this part, we would discuss “behind the scene” of those commands.

    CREATE DATABASE

    Once database is created and one (and only one) filegroup with CONTAINS MEMORY_OPTIMIZED_DATA clause, SQL Server would create a folder which is specified in filename parameter for that filegroup. In our sample database SQLSeverHelp_IMO we have added filename = “C:\IMO_Database\SQLSeverHelp_IMO_dir” which would create a folder behind the scene as shown below.

    image

    If we look inside the folders, the would be empty because there is no in-memory table created so far. We also have MDF and LDF file which are same as earlier version of SQL, nothing new there. We can use catalog view to get details about Memory optimized filegroup

    Use SQLSeverHelp_IMO
    GO
    Select * from sys.data_spaces
    Here is the query in SSMS and the output:
    image 

    CREATE TABLE

    Next logical step is to create a In-Memory table in the database. In our last post, we have created table called MyFirstMemporyOptimizedTable. As soon as table is created, SQL Server is going to create few files into the folder which were created during previous step of database creation.

    image

    Above files are created as soon as I created one table. Don’t worry by seeing so many files as we would discuss about these file later part of the series. All you need to remember that per file is 131072 KB = 128 MB by default. There are files having zero KB size as we have not inserted/updated/deleted any data in the table. In contrast to disk-based tables having 8K size pages in buffer pool, the In-memory tables don’t have pages in buffer pool. Think of this as rows in the memory linked to each other because we have index on table. In-memory data is not stored on data files at all. Instead, its stored as blob data using filestream files, which are shown in picture above. At this point just remember that they are called CheckPoint files which combination is DATA files and DELTA files. We would go deeper into those files once we go into blog about checkpoint for in-memory tables.

    Another thing which has happened behind the scene is to generate the DLL for the table definition and load into SQL Server Memory. Why? Well, In-Memory engine doesn’t have any knowledge about format of data record. It doesn’t know how to access the data which is part of in-memory table. Whenever we create table, a C file is generated which would have all callback functions used by In-Memory Engine. The C file, it’s compiled by C complier and DLL is generated. If you are a developer in C/C++, you can open the file and check the content to get a feeling.

    Here is the query

    use SQLSeverHelp_IMO
    go
    SELECT name, 
           description 
    FROM   sys.dm_os_loaded_modules 
    WHERE  description = 'XTP Native DLL' 
           AND name LIKE '%xtp_t_' + Cast(Db_id() AS VARCHAR(10)) + '_' 
    + Cast(Object_id('dbo.MyFirstMemporyOptimizedTable') AS VARCHAR(10)) + '.dll'
    Here is the query in SSMS and the output:

    image

    Let’s look at windows explorer and see what we have in that folder. If we look at xtp folder, we would see numbered folders. These are databases IDs which have in-memory objects. Default directory of XTP folder is DATA directory (C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL12.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\). Do you remember what XTP stands for? Go back and read first post.

    image

    For database SQLSeverHelp_IMO the database_id is 8 (you may have different ID) so let’s go inside the folder 8 and check what we have got there.

    image

    If you go back and look at the query, which we executed earlier, its easy to understand that DLL (and other files) have name as xtp_t_<DB_ID>_<Object_ID> where t stands for table and rest is self explanatory. Each in-memory table will have one corresponding DLL generated which would be loaded in the memory at all times.The end goal of converting table definition to machine level instruction (using DLL) is to avoid compilation during execution phase. There is no need for a DBA to worry about backup of those files. They would be re-generated as soon as database is opened and recovered. Once SQL Server restarts, it performs recovery of database and table would be loaded into memory again.

    CREATE PROCEDURE

    Before moving any forward, remember that here we are talking about procedure which are natively compiled. In earlier post, we created stored procedure [InsertName]. During creation time of stored procedure, compiler will convert interpreted T-SQL, query plans and expressions into native code.

    Here is the query

    use SQLSeverHelp_IMO
    go
    SELECT name, 
           description 
    FROM   sys.dm_os_loaded_modules 
    WHERE  name LIKE '%xtp_p_' + Cast(Db_id() AS VARCHAR(10)) + '_'        
           + Cast(Object_id('dbo.InsertName') AS VARCHAR(10)) + '.dll' 
    Here is the query in SSMS and the output:

    image

    Now, lets open the same XTP folder and look at content.

    image

    As we can see above, now we have new files having “p” in it and they are for stored procedure. The naming standard of those files is is xtp_p_<DB_ID>_<Object_ID>. Native Compilation of stored procedure takes an abstract tree representation of a stored procedure including queries, table and index metadata, and compiles them into native code designed to execute against tables and indexes managed by In-memory engine.

    What are the other files (.c, .mat, .obj, .pdb) ? Well, they are intermediate files created by complier. They are used for troubleshooting compilation issues. Here is the quick summary table

     

    File Extension

    Usage

    .c

    C source file generated by In-Memory engine

    .dll

    Natively compiled DLL to be loaded into SQL Server process

    .mat.xml

    MAT export file

    .obj

    Object file generated by C compiler

    .out

    Compiler output file

    .pdb

    Symbol file for the dll. Used for debugging code issues.

     

    If you are C++ developer, you can understand those files easily. Since they are not cause of worry for DBAs and Developers, I would not go deeper into explanation.

    With this, I would conclude this blog post and hopefully this has given you some insights about inner working of In-Memory object.

    Stay tuned for more..

    Cheers,

    Balmukund Lakhani

    Twitter @blakhani

    Author: SQL Server 2012 AlwaysOnPaperback, Kindle

    Posted in A - Z Series, Hekaton Series, In Memory OLTP, In-Memory OLTP, Internals, SQL Server 2014, SSMS | Tagged: , , , , , , | 7 Comments »